Respiratory Syncytial Virus + Adenovirus + parainfluenza test
what is Respiratory syncytial virus?
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a virus that causes infections of the lungs and respiratory tract. In adults and older, healthy children, the symptoms of respiratory syncytial virus are mild and typically mimic the common cold.
Infection with respiratory syncytial virus can be severe in some cases, especially in premature babies and infants with underlying health conditions. RSV can also become serious in older adults, adults with heart and lung diseases, or anyone with a very weak immune system (immunocompromised).i.e. HIV.
Signs and symptoms of respiratory syncytial virus infection typically appear about four to six days after exposure to the virus. In adults and older children, RSV usually causes mild cold-like signs and symptoms. These include: Congested or runny nose, Dry cough, Low-grade fever, Sore throat, Mild headache
In severe cases
Respiratory syncytial virus can lead to a lower respiratory tract illness such as pneumonia or bronchiolitis — an inflammation of the small airway passages entering the lungs. Signs and symptoms may include:
#Fever, Severe cough,
#Wheezing — a high-pitched noise that's usually heard on breathing out (exhaling),
'Rapid breathing or difficulty breathing, which may make the child prefer to sit up rather than lie down
#Bluish color of the skin due to lack of oxygen (cyanosis)
Infants are most severely affected by RSV. They may markedly draw in their chest muscles and the skin between their ribs, indicating that they're having trouble breathing, and their breathing may be short, shallow and rapid. They may cough. Or they may show few, if any, signs of a respiratory tract infection, but will eat poorly and be unusually lethargic and irritable.
Most children and adults recover from the illness in one to two weeks. But in young babies, infants born prematurely, or infants or adults who have chronic heart or lung problems, the virus may cause a more severe — occasionally life-threatening — infection that requires hospitalization.
Respiratory syncytial virus enters your body through your eyes, nose or mouth. It spreads easily when infectious respiratory secretions — such as those from coughing or sneezing — are inhaled or passed to others through direct contact, such as shaking hands.
The virus can also live for hours on objects such as countertops and toys. Touch your mouth, nose or eyes after touching a contaminated object, and you're likely to acquire the virus. An infected person is most contagious in the first few days after infection, but respiratory syncytial virus may spread for up to a few weeks after the start of infection.
People at increased risk of severe — sometimes life-threatening — infections include:
#Infants younger than 6 months of age
#Younger children, especially under 1 year of age, who were born prematurely or who have an underlying condition, such as congenital heart or lung disease
#Children with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or transplantation
#Infants in crowded child care settings
#Adults with asthma, congestive heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
#People with immunodeficiency, including those with certain transplanted organs, leukemia or HIV/AIDS
Complications of respiratory syncytial virus include:
#Hospitalization. When respiratory syncytial virus infection causes severe illness, hospitalization may be required so that doctors can monitor and treat breathing problems and give intravenous (IV) fluids. Most at risk of hospitalization are babies younger than 6 months old, babies who are born prematurely, and babies with congenital heart or lung disease.
#Pneumonia or bronchiolitis. When the respiratory syncytial virus moves from your upper respiratory tract to your lower respiratory tract, inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia) or the lungs' airways (bronchiolitis) can result. This complication can be quite serious in infants, young children, immunocompromised individuals, or people with chronic heart or lung disease.
#Middle ear infection. When microorganisms infiltrate the space behind the eardrum, a middle ear infection (otitis media) can result. This happens most frequently in infants and young children.
#Asthma. There may be a link between severe respiratory syncytial virus and the chance of developing asthma later in life.
#Recurring infections. Once you've been infected with the virus, it's common to have an occasional recurrence of RSV, usually in the form of a common cold. Although subsequent infections typically aren't as severe as the first, they can be serious in older adults or people with chronic heart or lung disease.
What are the symptoms of adenovirus infection?
Adenovirus often infects the airways and the intestinal tract. An infection usually manifests with symptoms similar to a common cold. There is a sore throat, runny nose and eyes, sneezing, headaches, cough and fever.
In some persons infection with adenovirus may also cause croup or bronchitis. Some infections may also lead to conjunctivitis (pink-eye), skin rash, diarrhea and bladder infections.
Who can be affected with adenovirus?
Adenovirus may affect any person. In a healthy person the infection is usually mild and resolves on its own within a week. Those with an immature or weak immune system are more at risk of severe complications.
#This includes young children and infants,
#elderly, pregnant women and
#those with a suppressed immunity (HIV AIDS patients, those on cancer chemotherapy drugs or immunosuppressant drugs after organ transplants etc.).
Outbreaks are common among those living in closed quarters like prisons, schools, hostels etc
How does adenovirus spread?
Spread may occur in two manners. The virus can be carried in airborne droplets that are released when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
This virus may also survive for long durations on objects. This spread is also possible if the objects used by an infected person are touched or an infected person handles food or other items used by un-infected persons.
Infection can also spread by touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with contaminated hands that have not been washed well. Drinking from contaminated water sources may also spread the infection.
Complications of adenovirus infection
Some persons with a poor immunity are prone to develop complications due to adenovirus infection.
Common but serious complications include lung infection or pneumonia, middle ear infection or otitis media and brain infections or meningitis.
What Is Parainfluenza?
human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), cause an infection in either the upper or lower respiratory area of the body. Symptoms of HPIVs are similar to those of the common cold. When cases are mild, the viruses are often misdiagnosed. Most healthy people infected with an HPIV recover with no treatment. On the other hand, a person with a weakened immune system is at risk for developing a serious and life-threatening infection.
How Is Parainfluenza Transmitted?
An HPIV can survive on a hard surface for up to 10 hours. If you touch a contaminated surface with your hands and then touch your nose or mouth, you can become infected. The viruses can also infect you through droplets or close contact with an infected person. It usually takes between two and seven days after infection for symptoms to occur.
What Are the Symptoms of Parainfluenza?
Common symptoms of the four types of HPIV are very similar to those of the common cold. They include: fever, cough, runny nose. stuffy nose, chest pain, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, general difficulty breathing
Most often, the symptoms of parainfluenza viruses aren’t severe enough to cause concern in healthy adults. They can, however, be life-threatening in an infant, older persons, or anyone else with a compromised or weakened immune system.
Complications of Parainfluenza infection
Airway obstruction in croup and bronchiolitis can be severe, pneumonia even life-threatening.
1. Take out the kit and put it at room temperature for 20-30min;
2. Dispense 1 drop of wash buffer to the test window,waiting for the liquid to wet the membrane well;
3. Add 150ul of serum(4 drops if with a sample pipet)into the test window,waiting for the liquid to be absorbed completely;
4. Add 3 drops of colloidal Gold Conjugate into the test window,waiting for the liquid to be absorbed enough;
5. Add 3 drops of wash buffer into the test window,and interpret the result within 3 minutes immediately after the liquid is absorbed adequately.
Note1: This is SERUM / plasma TEST only,
You need to be able to separate SERUM / plasma from blood, to perform this test.