what is Epstein Barr virus (EBV)?
The epstein–barr virus (ebv) is a virus in the herpesvirus family / herpes virus 4 (HHV-4) and is one of the most common viruses in humans. Ebv is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis, and infection with ebv occurs by the oral transfer of saliva and/or genital secretions, hence the moniker "the kissing disease". In the United States, about 90% of all adults have evidence of previous infection.
Most of EBV infections cause symptoms similar to those of a cold or other mild viral infections. Sometimes adults develop different and more severe symptoms 'infectious mononucleosis (mono)', from EBV infection. (Mono), is named for the large numbers of white blood cells (mononuclear cells) in the bloodstream. Adults usually catch infectious mononucleosis by kissing or having other intimate contact with someone infected with EBV.
After the initial infection, EBV, like other herpesviruses, remains in the body, mainly in white blood cells, for life. Infected people shed the virus periodically in their saliva. They are most likely to infect others during shedding, which usually causes no symptoms.
Causes of Mono
Infectious mononucleos (mono) is a contagious viral illness that initially attacks the lymph nodes in the neck and throat. When these tissues become less effective in fighting infection, sore throats, swelling of the nodes and fever may result.
Mono is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, which is named after the scientists who first identified it in the mid-1960s. The virus enters the lymph nodes and attacks the lymphocytes (the white blood cells manufactured there). As the white blood cells come into contact with the virus, they change shape and multiply. At first, there are no symptoms because it takes several weeks before enough of the altered cells can accumulate to generate infection.
Symptoms of EBV / mono
The usual time between infection and the appearance of symptoms is thought to be 30 to 50 days. The four main symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are:
Extreme fatigue, Fever, Sore throat, Swollen lymph nodes
Not everyone has all four symptoms. Usually, the infection begins with a general feeling of illness (malaise) and fatigue, which is usually most severe during the first 2 to 3 weeks but may last longer. These vague symptoms are followed by fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes. The fever usually peaks at about 103° F (about 39.5° C). The throat is often very sore, and puslike material may be present at the back of the throat. Most commonly, the lymph nodes of the neck are swollen, but any lymph node may be swollen. In some people, the only symptom is swollen lymph nodes. (others symptoms included : enlarged spleen, swollen liver, rash)
Although the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis usually resolve in one or two months, the EBV remains dormant in cells in the throat and blood for the rest of the person's life. Periodically, the virus can reactivate and can be found in the saliva of infected persons. This reactivation usually occurs without symptoms of illness. EBV also establishes a lifelong dormant infection in some cells of the body's immune system.
How EBV Spreads
EBV spreads most commonly through bodily fluids, especially saliva. However, EBV can also spread through blood and semen during zexual contact, blood transfusions, and organ transplantations.
EBV can be spread by using objects, such as a toothbrush or drinking glass, that an infected person recently used. The virus probably survives on an object at least as long as the object remains moist.
The first time you get infected with EBV (primary EBV infection) you can spread the virus for weeks and even before you have symptoms. Once the virus is in your body, it stays there in a latent (inactive) state. If the virus reactivates, you can potentially spread EBV to others no matter how much time has passed since the initial infection.
1. Take out the kit and put it at room temperature for 20-30min;
2. Dispense 1 drop of wash buffer to the test window,waiting for the liquid to wet the membrane well;
3. Add 150ul of serum(4 drops if with a sample pipet)into the test window,waiting for the liquid to be absorbed completely;
4. Add 3 drops of colloidal Gold Conjugate into the test window,waiting for the liquid to be absorbed enough;
5. Add 3 drops of wash buffer into the test window,and interpret the result within 3 minutes immediately after the liquid is absorbed adequately.
Note1: This is SERUM / plasma TEST only,
You need to be able to separate SERUM / plasma from blood, to perform this test.