Tuberculosis + Mycoplasma pneumoniae test + Chlamydia pneumoniae test
What causes TB?
Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria that spread from person to person through microscopic droplets released into the air. This can happen when someone with the untreated, active form of tuberculosis coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs or sings.
Although tuberculosis is contagious, it's not easy to catch. You're much more likely to get tuberculosis from someone you live with or work with than from a stranger. Most people with active TB who've had appropriate drug treatment for at least two weeks are no longer contagious.
Symptoms of TB
Although your body may harbor the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, your immune system usually can prevent you from becoming sick. For this reason, doctors make a distinction between:
#Latent TB. In this condition, you have a TB infection, but the bacteria remain in your body in an inactive state and cause no symptoms. Latent TB, also called inactive TB or TB infection, isn't contagious. It can turn into active TB, so treatment is important for the person with latent TB and to help control the spread of TB. An estimated 2 billion people have latent TB.
#Active TB. This condition makes you sick and can spread to others. It can occur in the first few weeks after infection with the TB bacteria, or it might occur years later. (Latent TB could develop into an active TB disease at a later date, particularly if your immune system becomes weakened, such as in malnourished people, people with HIV or the elderly.)
Signs and symptoms of active TB include:
#Coughing that lasts three or more weeks
#Coughing up blood
#Chest pain, or pain with breathing or coughing
#Unintentional weight loss
#Fatigue, Fever, Night sweats, Chills, Loss of appetite
Tuberculosis can also affect other parts of your body, including your kidneys, spine or brain. When TB occurs outside your lungs, signs and symptoms vary according to the organs involved. For example, tuberculosis of the spine may give you back pain, and tuberculosis in your kidneys might cause blood in your urine.
#Substance abuse. IV drug use or alcohol abuse weakens your immune system and makes you more vulnerable to tuberculosis.
#Tobacco use. Using tobacco greatly increases the risk of getting TB and dying of it.
CDC statistics for TB show the following for 2013:
#A third of the world's population was infected with tuberculosis.
#9 million people worldwide became sick with tuberculosis.
#1.5 million people died of tuberculosis.
#In the United States, just over 9,500 cases of tuberculosis were diagnosed.
#Tuberculosis was the leading killer of people with HIV.
Without treatment, tuberculosis can be fatal. Untreated active disease typically affects your lungs, but it can spread to other parts of your body through your bloodstream. Examples of tuberculosis complications include: TB pneumonia, Spinal pain, Joint damage, brain meningitis, Liver or kidney problems, Heart disorders.
What is a mycoplasma pneumoniae?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a contagious respiratory infection that spreads easily through contact with respiratory fluids. It can cause epidemics.
MP is known as an atypical pneumonia and is sometimes called “walking pneumonia.” It spreads quickly in crowded areas, such as schools, college campuses, and nursing homes. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, moisture containing the MP bacteria is released into the air. Uninfected people in their environment can easily breathe the bacteria in.
Up to one-fifth of all lung infections that people develop, are caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae bacteria. The bacteria can cause tracheobronchitis (chest colds), sore throats, and ear infections as well as pneumonia.
What causes a mycoplasma pneumoniae infection?
Anyone in contact with a secretion (such as phlegm) from the respiratory passages of an infected person risks contracting the mycoplasma organism. However, close contact is required for transmission, so the bacteria is more commonly found among members of the same family and in schools and day-care institutions.
There's little point in isolating someone infected with the micro-bacteria since some people carry the infection without feeling ill. Mycoplasma infections are most common in children and the elderly, with up to 18 per cent of affected children needing hospital admission.
Who is at risk for developing mycoplasma pneumoniae?
In many healthy adults, the immune system can fight off MP before it grows into an infection. Those most at risk include:
#people who have diseases that compromise their immune system, such as HIV, or who are on chronic steroids, immunotherapy, or chemotherapy
#people who have lung disease
#people who have sickle cell disease
#children younger than age 5
What are the symptoms of mycoplasma pneumonia?
A dry cough is the most common sign of infection.It takes two to three weeks from the time of infection for the following symptoms to appear: high fever, headaches, muscle pain, aching throat, dry cough, which may last for weeks,
Around 10 per cent of cases will go on to develop pneumonia.
What are the complications of mycoplasma pneumonia?
In some cases, an MP infection can become dangerous. If you have asthma, MP can make your symptoms worse. MP can also develop into a more severe case of pneumonia. Long-term or chronic MP is rare but may cause permanent lung damage.
What is Chlamydia pneumoniae?
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a type of bacteria that causes lung infections, such as pneumonia. The bacteria cause illness by damaging the lining of the respiratory tract (throat, windpipe, and lungs).
How It Spreads
A person who is sick with C. pneumoniae infection has the bacteria in their nose, throat, windpipe, and lungs. C. pneumoniae is spread from person to person when people who are sick cough or sneeze while in close contact with others, who then breathe in the bacteria. If someone who is infected coughs into their hands, they can spread the bacteria to others, by shaking hands for example, who can also become infected if they touch their nose or mouth while the bacteria are on their hands.
It is common for this illness to spread between family members who live together. C. pneumoniae infections are known to have long incubation periods (the time between first catching the bacteria from an ill person and development of symptoms), with symptoms beginning 3 to 4 weeks after exposure.
Signs and Symptoms
Illnesses caused by C pneumoniae can cause a prolonged cough, bronchitis, and pneumonia as well as a sore throat, laryngitis, ear infections, and sinusitis. They usually start gradually with a sore throat that is followed by a cough about a week or more later. The cough may last for 2 to 6 weeks. In some cases, peoples may get bronchitis or a mild case of pneumonia.
Most respiratory infections caused by C. pneumoniae are asymptomatic or mild, although severe complications can occur that result in hospitalization and sometimes death. Complications that have been reported include: Severe pneumonia, Exacerbation of asthma, Encephalitis, Myocarditis.
Test Intended Use (Accuracy:over 99%)
It is based on the principle of capturing method, which employs MP/CP recombinant antigen and anti-human polyclonal antibody to selectively identify MP/CP antibody in serum or plasma.
Please read the instructions carefully before detection
1.Open the sealed foil pouch bag, take out the cassette and put on the table..
2.Use dropper adds 1 drop blood into the hole and then add 2 drops specimen buffer into the hole.
3. Read result within 10-20 minutes and. Read result after 20 minutes may give erroneous results.
Test Results and Timing of Infection
Positive IgM / Positive IgG = Infection date indeterminate
Positive IgM / Negative IgG = Acute/Recent infection
Negative IgM / Positive IgG = Established Infection
Negative IgM / Negative IgG = No infection