Canine Parvovirus Infection in Dogs
The canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is a highly contagious viral illness that affects dogs. The virus manifests itself in two different forms. The more common form is the intestinal form, which is characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, and lack of appetite (anorexia). The less common form is the cardiac form, which attacks the heart muscles of very young puppies, often leading to death. The majority of cases are seen in puppies that are between six weeks and six months old. The incidence of canine parvovirus infections has been reduced radically by early vaccination in young puppies.
The virus is transmitted either by direct contact with an infected dog, or indirectly, by the fecal-oral route. Heavy concentrations of the virus are found in an infected dog’s stool, so when a healthy dog sniffs an infected dog’s stool, it will contract the disease. The virus can also be brought into a dog's environment by way of shoes that have come into contact with infected feces. There is evidence that the virus can live in ground soil for up to a year, you will need to wash the affected area with household bleach to kill the virus.
Which Dogs Are Prone to Parvovirus?
Puppies, adolescent dogs and canines who are not vaccinated are most susceptible to the virus. Breeds at a higher risk are Rottweilers, Doberman pinschers, Labrador retrievers, American Staffordshire terriers and German shepherds.
Signs and Symptoms of Canine Parvovirus
Canine parvovirus is an acute illness, which means that symptoms develop suddenly, usually within 3–10 days of exposure. In most cases, dogs that are infected with the virus do not develop the disease (called asymptomatic infection). Canine parvovirus often is fatal in puppies. Sometimes, puppies collapse and die without showing prior signs of infection. Signs and symptoms of canine parvovirus include the following:
#Bloody diarrhea (often severe)
#Lethargy (lack of energy)
#Loss of appetite
#Malaise (discomfort associated with illness)
#Rapid weight loss
Without immediate treatment, canine parvovirus often progresses quickly. CPV can cause death within 2–3 days of the onset of symptoms, so it is important to seek veterinary care as soon as possible.
Complications include dehydration, secondary infections, sepsis and a condition in which part of the intestine slips into the part below it (called intussusception). CPV also can damage the spleen. Dogs that have another health condition are at increased risk for developing severe complications and illness.
Canine Coronavirus Infection in Dogs
Coronavirus infection is a highly contagious infection of dogs that primarily attacks the intestinal tract. The disease is spread from dog to dog through contact with feces. After coronavirus has been transmitted to a dog, the incubation (development) period of the disease can be as short as one to four days.
How Coronavirus Is Transmitted
The coronavirus is spread from dog to dog through exposure to the poop of infected dogs. Infected dogs can shed the virus in feces for up to six months. CCV resides within the upper two-thirds of the small intestine, where it replicates itself, as well as in local lymph nodes.
Stress increases susceptibility to a CCV infection, so dogs that are trained intensively, live in overcrowded environments or unsanitary conditions, or spend time in locations where lots of dogs gather are at higher risk.
Symptoms of a CCV Infection
Dog may experience a single episode of vomiting or a few days of explosive diarrhea. There may also be a temporary loss of appetite or depression. Very rarely, there may also be fever or mild respiratory symptoms.
Puppies, especially those under 12 weeks of age, are at much greater risk for serious illness than adult dogs, and may suffer from prolonged diarrhea and dehydration. If infected only with coronavirus, most puppies will recover after several days of mild to severe diarrhea.
However, puppies infected with both coronavirus and parvovirus will develop severe enteritis (inflammation of the small intestine), and sadly, these two simultaneous infections are fatal for many puppies.
Rotavirus Infections in Dogs
Rotavirus causes inflammation of the intestines and in severe cases, dysfunction in the intestinal walls. It is the leading cause of diarrhea and gastrointestinal upset in dogs. And although it can be seen in dogs at any age, puppies are more prone to rotavirus infections, especially those less than 12 weeks old.
The rotavirus is typically transmitted through contact with contaminated fecal matter. Dogs with underdeveloped or weak immune systems and those living in overly stressed environments are most at risk for the infection.
Symptoms of Rotavirus in Dogs
#Mucus in the feces.
#Nausea or vomiting.
#Collect dog’s feces with the swab stick from dog’s cloaca or on the ground.
#Insert the wet swab into the provided assay buffer tube. Agitate it to assure good sample extraction.
#Take out the cassette from the foil pouch and place it horizontally.
#Gradually drip 2-3 drops of sample extraction into the sample hole .
#Interpret the result in 5-10 minutes.