giardia in dogs
Giardiasis refers to an intestinal infection that is caused by the protozoan parasite giardia, which is the most common intestinal parasite that is found in humans. Dogs develop the infection by ingesting infectious offspring (cysts) that are shed in another animal's feces. The contamination can be from direct or indirect contact with the infected cysts. The organisms, once ingested, make their way into the intestine, often causing diarrhea
How do Giardia reproduce and how are they transmitted?
A dog becomes infected by eating the cyst form of the parasite. In the small intestine, the cyst opens and releases an active form called a trophozoite. These have flagella, hair-like structures that whip back and forth allowing them to move around. They attach to the intestinal wall and reproduce by dividing in two. After an unknown number of divisions, this form develops a wall around itself (encysts) and is passed in the feces. The Giardia in the feces can contaminate the environment and water and infect other animals and people.
Dogs at Increased Risk
Dogs of any age, breed or gender can become infected with Giardia. Young animals, and those confined in close quarters with a number of other animals, seem to be more susceptible to infection, as are dogs whose immune systems are stressed or otherwise compromised.
What are the signs of a Giardia infection?
Younger animals are usually affected, and the usual sign is diarrhea. Usually the infected animal may lose weight. The feces are often abnormal, being pale, having a bad odor, and appearing greasy. In the intestine, Giardia prevents proper absorption of nutrients, damages the delicate intestinal lining, and interferes with digestion.
What is Ehrlichia?
Ehrlichia is a disease transmitted by TICKS. Signs of Ehrlichia can occur 1-3 weeks after the bite of an infected tick, and in the acute phase of the disease, symptoms may last up to a few weeks. The organism likes to live inside blood cells and can destroy the platelets involved with blood clotting. Organisms can also be found inside lymph nodes, the bone marrow, liver and spleen.
How is Ehrlichia transmitted?
When the ticks feeds on another animal, the Ehrlichia is passed on to that animal. The Ehrlichia can remain alive in the developing tick for up to 5 months. This means a tick could become infected in the fall, and infect a dog the following spring. Almost every state in the United States has reported a case of ehrlichiosis.
Symptoms of Ehrlichia
During the acute phase can vary from joint pain and stiffness, fever, lethargy, bruising and anemia. Many dogs can overcome the infection on their own, but others may enter a subclinical or chronic phase of infection, which can be much more difficult to clear and/or treat. In some cases, chronic neurological symptoms can occur as well as inflammation of the eyes. Some dogs can have repeated bouts of illness, especially during periods of stress.
How can I prevent ehrlichiosis in my pet?
Tick control is the main way to prevent ehrlichiosis in those areas with high tick infestations.
#Products which repel and kill ticks such as those containing permethrins
#Tick collars containing the active ingredient amitraz (Preventic collars)
Can humans get Ehrlichiosis from the dog?
humans can get canine ehrlichiosis from tick bites. The common symptoms in people include fever, chills, headache, and muscle aches. Other less common symptoms include nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss, abdominal pain, cough, diarrhea and change in mental status.
#Collect feces with the swab stick from animal’s cloaca or on the ground.
#Insert the wet swab into the provided assay buffer tube. Agitate it to assure good sample extraction.
#Take out the cassette from the foil pouch and place it horizontally.
#Gradually drip 3 drops of sample extraction into the sample hole “S”.
#Interpret the result in 5-10 minutes.