Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae or gonococcus.
The bacteria are mainly found in discharge from the penis and in vaginal fluid.
Gonorrhoea is easily passed between people through unprotected zex
The bacteria can infect the cervix (entrance to the womb), the urethra (tube through which urine passes out of the body), the rectum, and less commonly the throat or eyes.
The infection can also be passed from a pregnant woman to her baby. If you're pregnant and may have gonorrhoea, it's important to get tested and treated before your baby is born. Without treatment, gonorrhoea can cause permanent blindness in a newborn baby.
Symptoms of gonorrhoea
Symptoms of gonorrhoea usually develop within about two weeks of being infected, although they sometimes don't appear until many months later.
Symptoms in women
In women, symptoms of gonorrhoea can include:
#an unusual vaginal discharge, which may be thin or watery and green or yellow in colour
#pain or a burning sensation when passing urine
#pain or tenderness in the lower abdominal area (this is less common)
#bleeding between periods, heavier periods and bleeding after zex (this is less common)
Symptoms in men
In men, symptoms of gonorrhoea can include:
#an unusual discharge from the tip of the penis, which may be white, yellow or green
#pain or a burning sensation when urinating
#inflammation (swelling) of the foreskin
#pain or tenderness in the testicles (this is rare)
#Infection in the rectum, throat or eyes
Both men and women can develop an infection in the rectum, eyes or throat by having unprotected xes. If infected semen or vaginal fluid comes into contact with the eyes, you can also develop conjunctivitis.
Infection in the rectum can cause discomfort, pain or discharge. Infection in the eyes can cause irritation, pain, swelling and discharge. Infection in the throat usually causes no symptoms
The Gonorrhea test involves the chemical extraction of the Gonorrhea antigen followed by solid-phase immunometric assay technology for the qualitative detection of extracted sample. In the test procedure, a specimen is collected with a swab and Gonorrhea antigens are extracted from the specimen with extraction reagents. The extract is added to the sample well with the aid of a transfer pipette and allowed to soak in.
If Gonorrhea antigen is present in the specimen, it will react with the conjugate dye, which binds to the antibody on the membrane to generate a colored line in the test window. The presence of two colored lines, one in the test window and the other in the control window, indicates a positive result, while the absence of a line in the test window indicates a negative result.
Collecting the specimen:
1. Start up by adding 300ul (about 8-9 drops) of buffer A to the attached mixing tube. Then use a swab to
collect specimen in the following suggested method:
a) For male patient:
Dip secretion in urethral meatus with a cotton stick.
If there is no secretion, insert the swab into the urethra of the penis.
Gently rotate with sufficient pressure to dislodge the epithelial cells.
Allow the swab to remain inserted for a few seconds after rotation.
b) For female patient:
Use swab number 1 to remove discharges from the vaginal track opening.
Then insert swab number 2 into vaginal track for half a minute and retrieve swab.
Carefully remove the swab avoiding contact with any external surfaces.
2. Place swab into the tube and mix well with buffer A so that discharges are well suspended in the buffer A.
Discard swab into disinfectant container.
3. Add 300 ul (about 8-9 drops) of buffer B to the tube, cap the tube and mix well.
1. Use the dropper, draw 0.1ml (about 4 drops) sample into the pipette,
and dispense it into the sample well on the cassette.
2. Wait 10 –15 minutes and read results. Do not read results after 30 minutes.