What is Typhoid?
Typhoid fever is a serious illness caused by a bacteria called Salmonella typhi. In the U.S. about 400 cases occur annually, and 70% of these are acquired while travelling internationally. Typhoid fever is still common in developing countries and affects about 12.5 million persons each year. Any person can get typhoid fever, but those who travel, especially to developing countries are at increased risk.
Salmonella typhi bacteria are shed in the stool of infected persons, including chronic carriers. Typhoid fever is spread by eating or drinking contaminated food or water or by direct or indirect contact with fecal material from infected persons. Symptoms of Salmonella typhi infection may be mild to severe and can include fever, headache, loss of appetite, constipation or diarrhea, and nonproductive cough.
How Do People Get Typhoid Fever?
Typhoid fever is contracted by drinking or eating the bacteria in contaminated food or water. People with acute illness can contaminate the surrounding water supply through stool, which contains a high concentration of the bacteria. Contamination of the water supply can, in turn, taint the food supply. The bacteria can survive for weeks in water or dried sewage.
About 3%-5% of people become carriers of the bacteria after the acute illness. Others suffer a very mild illness that goes unrecognized. These people may become long-term carriers of the bacteria, even though they have no symptoms, and be the source of new outbreaks of typhoid fever for many years.
What Are the Symptoms of Typhoid Fever?
The incubation period is usually 1-2 weeks, and the duration of the illness is about 3-4 weeks. Symptoms include: Poor appetite, Headaches, Generalized aches and pains, Fever as high as 104 Farenheit, Lethargy, Diarrhea.
Chest congestion develops in many people, and abdominal pain and discomfort are common. The fever becomes constant. Improvement occurs in the third and fourth week in those without complications. About 10% of people have recurrent symptoms after feeling better for one to two weeks. Relapses are actually more common in individuals treated with antibiotics.
The Typhoid Rapid Test Kit is a lateral flow immunoassay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of anti-Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) IgG and IgM in human blood. It is intended to be used as a screening test and as an aid in the diagnosis of infection with S. typhi.
This test imultaneously detects and differentiates the IgG and the IgM antibodies to S. typhi specific antigen thus to aid in the determination of current or previous exposure to the S. typhi.
Typhoid fever Rapid Test Device is a qualitative membrane-based immunoassay for the detection of specific IgM/IgG antibodies against a specific Salmonella typhiantigen in whole blood, serum, or plasma. During testing, the specimen reacts with Goat anti-Human IgM/IgG -coated particles in the test strip. The mixture then migrates upward on the membrane chromatographically by capillary action and reacts with the Salmonella typhiantigen in test line region. If the specimen contains IgM/IgG antibodies against a specific Salmonella typhi antigen, a colored line will appear in test line region. If the specimen does not contain IgM/IgG antibodies against a specific Salmonella typhiantigen, no colored line will appear in the test line regions, indicating a negative result. To serve as a procedural control, a colored line will always in the control line region, indicating that the proper volume of specimen has been added and membrane wicking has occurred
1. Remove the test device from the sealed pouch and use it as soon as possible.
2. Place the test device on a clean and level surface.
3. Hold the dropper vertically and transfer 1 drop of specimen (approximately 35?l) to the specimen well(S) of the test device, then add 2 drops of buffer (approximately 70?l) and start the timer. See illustration below.
4. Wait for the colored line(s) to appear. Read results at 15 minutes. Do not interpret the result after 20 minutes.