What is trichomoniasis?
Trichomoniasis is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. Although symptoms of the disease vary, most women and men who have the parasite cannot tell they are infected.
How common is trichomoniasis?
Trichomoniasis is considered the most common curable STD. In the United States, an estimated 3.7 million people have the infection, but only about 30% develop any symptoms of trichomoniasis. Infection is more common in women than in men, and older women are more likely than younger women to have been infected.
Causes of Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is caused by a tiny parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. and this parasite is usually spread by having unprotected zex.
In women, this parasite mainly infects the vagina and urethra (tube that carries urine out of the body). Also, if a woman is pregnant and gets Trichomoniasis, her baby may be born early or with low birth weight of less than 5.5 pounds.
In men, the infection most commonly affects the urethra, but the head of the penis or prostate gland (a gland near the bladder that helps produce semen) can become infected in some cases.
Symptoms of Trichomoniasis
The symptoms of trichomoniasis are similar to those of many other std, so it can sometimes be difficult to diagnose.
About 70% of infected people do not have any signs or symptoms. When trichomoniasis does cause symptoms, they can range from mild irritation to severe inflammation. Some people with symptoms get them within 5 to 28 days after being infected, but others do not develop symptoms until much later. Symptoms can come and go.
Men with trichomoniasis may feel itching or irritation inside the penis, burning/pain after urination or ejaculation, or some discharge from the penis. and urge to urinate frequently
Women with trichomoniasis may notice itching, burning, redness or soreness of the genitals, discomfort with urination, or a thin discharge with an unusual smell that can be clear, white, yellowish, or greenish.
Having trichomoniasis can make it feel unpleasant to have zex. Without treatment, the infection can last for months or even years.
How common is Candidiasis?
Candidiasis is thought to be one of the most common causes of vaginal infection. Approximately, 75% of women will be diagnosed with Candida at least once during their lifetime. 40-50% of them will suffer recurrent infections and 5% are estimated to develop chronic Candidiasis. Symptoms of which include: acute itching, vaginal soreness, irritation, rash on the outer lips of the vagina and genital burning that may increase during urination. Candidiasis is more commonly misdiagnosed than others,because a broad variety of infectious diseases can cause a similar array of symptoms.
Causes of Candida Albicans
Fungus and bacteria naturally live in the vagina, but when the fungus Candida albicans increases, it can cause thrush. This Candida organism can become capable of causing illness when the body’s ability to contain it proves ineffective and consequently allows the yeast to spread, causing an overgrowth. This can happen either internally or externally, such as on the skin and in/around the oral and vaginal cavities. Many health practitioners agree that internal Candida infection is very common, often left undiagnosed, and possibly the cause of many external infectious Candida conditions.
The following factors might increase the likelihood of a Candida overgrowth occurring:
#Treatment with antibiotics
#Excess consumption of sugar and sugar containing products
#Use of certain birth control tablets containing progesterone
#Mercury from mercury amalgam dental fillings
#Chlorine from drinking and bathing/swimming water
Symptoms of Candida Albicans
The fungus is, typically, found in skin folds, under women's breasts, in the groin, on the genitals and in the area around the anal orifice.
The symptoms are:
#itchy, purple patches on the skin that resemble eczema. The itching in these patches is highest near the edge.
#a small degree of scaling.
#blisters resembling spots are often seen around the itchy patches.
Candida albicans in Men
Men suffer from yeast infection just like women. Although the causes may be somewhat different, the resultant problem is the same. The following risk factors make candidiasis in men more likely
#Men can get Candida from intimacy with a woman, as a result he may develop rashes and experience itchiness around the penile region with sore.
#Diabetes, particularly if poorly controlled. Higher levels of blood sugar allow a more conducive environment for the yeasts to thrive
#Antibiotics - taking antibiotics to treat an infection, will fight off both types good and bad bacteria, which causes a change in the balance of the normal microbial flora. This upsets the balance and allows the Candida to overgrow.
#Men who have prolonged illness, the weakened immunity reduces the body's defence against the fungus and so allows Candida to thrive
#Uncircumcised men with poor hygiene - men who have not been circumcised have a moist, dark, warm space underneath the foreskin that is favorable for yeast growth
#Personal hygiene. Chronic local irritants such as, perfumed soaps and shower gel, can irritate the benis and lead to fungal infection, which is more likely on damaged skin. Not drying carefully after washing is also a risk factor because fungus can thrive on the benis in warm, moist conditions.
This Candida albicans/Trichomonas Vaginalis Antigen Combo Rapid Test uses dyed latex immunochromatographic, capillary flow technology. Two strips are contained in the each device, one for Candida albicans detection while the other one for Trichomonas vaginalis detection.
The test procedure requires the solubilization of Trichomonas/Candia proteins from a vaginal swab by mixing the swab in sample buffer. Then the mixed sample buffer is added to the test cassette sample well and the mixture migrates along the membrane surface. If Candida albicans/Trichomonas vaginalis is present in the sample, it will form a complex with the primary anti-Candida albicans/Trichomonas vaginalis antibody conjugated to colored particles (red). The complex will then be bound by a second anti- Candida albicans/Trichomonas vaginalis antibody coated on the nitrocellulose membrane. The appearance of a visible red test line along with the blue control line will indicate a positive result.
* Insert the swab into the inside of the vagina, and rotate for 20sec. Pull the swab out carefully.
* Put the swab to the extraction tube, if the test may be run immediately.
* Place a clean Extraction tube in the designated area of the workstation. Add 20 drops of Extraction Buffer to the extraction tube.
* Put the specimen swab into the tube. Vigorously mix the solution by rotating the swab forcefully against the side of the tube at least ten times (while submerged).
Allow the swab to soak in the Extraction Buffer for one minute prior to the next Step
* Squeeze out as much liquid as possible from the swab by pinching the side of the flexible Extraction tube as the swab is removed. At least 1/2 of the Sample Buffer solution must remain in the tube for adequate capillary migration to occur. Put a cap onto the extracted tube.
* The specimens extracted can retain at room temperature for 60 minutes without affecting the result of the test.
* Remove the test from its sealed pouch, and place it on a clean, level surface. Label the device with patient or control identification. To obtain a best result, the assay should be performed within one hour.
* Add 3 drops (approximately 100 µl) of extracted sample from the Extraction Tube to each sample well on the test cassette.
As the test begins to work, you will see color move across the membrane.
* Wait for the colored band(s) to appear. The result should be read at 15 minutes. Do not interpret the result after 20 minutes.