What is group B strep tococcus?
Group B strep tococcus, also known as Strep B, usually live harmlessly inside the digestive system and in the vagina, and doesn't have any obvious symptoms. Strep B can sometimes cause, urinary tract infection, skin infections, bone infections, blood infections and pneumonia, particularly in vulnerable people, such as the elderly and those with diabetes
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Group B strep in pregnancy
It's estimated around one in every four pregnant women have strep B bacteria in their vagina or digestive system.
The bacteria can sometimes be passed on to the baby through the amniotic fluid (a clear liquid that surrounds and protects the unborn baby in the womb) or as the baby passes through the birth canal during labour.
Most babies exposed to strep B will be unaffected, but in around 1 in every 2,000 cases they can become infected. Strep B infection during pregnancy can also cause miscarriage or stillbirth, but this is rare.
Group B strep in newborn babies
As newborn babies have a poorly developed immune system, strep B bacteria can quickly spread through their body, causing serious infections such as meningitis and pneumonia.
The symptoms of a strep B infection in a newborn baby usually develop within the first few hours or days of giving birth, and include:
#being floppy and unresponsive
#grunting when breathing
#an unusually high or low temperature
#unusually fast or slow breathing
#an unusually fast or slow heart rate
In some cases, a baby can pick up a strep B infection a few weeks or months after birth. It's not known exactly why this happens, but it's not related to infection during birth. Symptoms of a late-onset group B strep infection can include a fever, poor feeding, vomiting and reduced consciousness.
Preventing and treating strep B infections in babies
It's possible to reduce the chances of a baby becoming infected with strep B by identifying cases where there is a risk of the bacteria being passed from a mother to their child and giving the mother antibiotics directly into a vein (intravenously) during labour.
Known risk factors that may mean you need intravenous antibiotics during labour include:
#you have previously given birth to a baby with a strep B infection
#strep B is found in your urine during tests carried out for other purposes
#strep B is found during vaginal and rectal swabs carried out for other purposes
#you have a fever during labour
#you go into labour prematurely (before 37 weeks of pregnancy)
If your baby develops symptoms of a strep B infection after they're born, they will have tests to confirm the diagnosis and will be given intravenous antibiotics as soon as possible.
Most babies who become infected can be treated successfully and will make a full recovery, although there is chance they could die as a result of complications such as meningitis. Some babies who survive are left with permanent problems, such as hearing loss, vision loss, and problems with memory and concentration.
The Strep B Rapid Test Device has been designed to detect Group B Streptococcal antigen through visual interpretation of color development in the internal strip. The membrane was immobilized with Rabbit anti Strep B antibody on the test region. During the test, the specimen is allowed to react with another rabbit anti-Strep B antibody colored particals conjugates, which were precoated on the sample pad of the test. The mixture then moves on the membrane by a capillary action, and interact with reagents on the membrane. If there were enough Strep B antigens in specimens, a colored band will form at the test region of the membrane. Presence of this colored band indicates a positive result, while its absence indicates a negative result. Appearance of a colored band at the control region serves as a procedural control. This indicates that proper volume of specimen has been added and membrane wicking has occurred.
* Insert the swab into the inside of the vagina, and rotate for 20sec. Pull the swab out carefully.
* Put the swab to the extraction tube, if the test may be run immediately.
#Provide 3 drops of Extraction Buffer A to the extraction tubes.
Add 3 drops of Extraction Buffer B to the tube and mix the liquids thoroughly.
#Immediately place the swab specimen in the tube. Use a circular motion to roll the swab against the side of the Extraction Tube so that the liquid is squeezed out from the swab and reabsorb again for 2 minutes.
#Add 3 drops of Extraction Buffer C to the tube. Squeeze the swab firmly against the tube to expel as much liquid as possible from the swab. Discard the swab following guidelines for handling infectious agents.
#At the end of the extraction the swab should be squeezed totally to remain as much liquid as possible in the extraction tube. The swab must be disposed according the local guidelines for handling infectious agents and chemical reagents.
#Remove the test from its sealed pouch, and place it on a clean, level surface. Label the device with patient or control identification. To obtain a best result, the assay should be performed within one hour.
#Add 3 drops (approximately 100 µl) of extracted sample from the Extraction Tube to the sample well on the test cassette.
#As the test begins to work, you will see color move across the membrane.
#Wait for the colored band(s) to appear. The result should be read at 15 minutes. Do not interpret the result after 20 minutes.