What causes cervical cancer?
Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). HPV is a very common virus that can be passed on through any type of zexual contact with a man or a woman. There are more than 100 different types of HPV, many of which are harmless. (causes warts and verrucas).
However, some types of HPV can cause abnormal changes to the cells of the cervix, which can eventually lead to cervical cancer. Two strains of the HPV virus (HPV 16 and HPV 18) are known to be responsible for development of most cases of cervical cancer. These types of HPV infection don't have any symptoms, so many women won't realise they have the infection.
Screening for cervical cancer
Over the course of many years, the cells lining the surface of the cervix undergo a series of changes. In some cases, these precancerous cells can become cancerous. Most cases develop in women in their 30s or 40s. If cervical cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, there is a good chance of a cure. Regular cervical screening tests can detect pre-cancer and treatment can reduce the risk of cervical cancer developing.
Symptoms of Cervical cancer
The symptoms of cervical cancer aren't always obvious, and it may not cause any symptoms at all until it's reached an advanced stage. This is why it's very important that doing cervical screening. In most cases, vaginal bleeding is the first noticeable symptom of cervical cancer. It usually occurs after having zex or bleeding after the menopause. Other symptoms may include pain and discomfort during zex and an unpleasant smelling vaginal discharge.
Advanced cervical cancer If the cancer spreads out of the cervix and into surrounding tissue and organs, it can trigger a range of other symptoms, including:
constipation, blood in urine (haematuria), loss of bladder control (urinary incontinence)
bone pain, swelling of one of the legs
severe pain in the side or back caused by swelling in the kidneys, related to a condition called hydronephrosis
loss of appetite, weight loss, tiredness and a lack of energy
Key statistics about cervical cancer :
11,955 women in the United States were diagnosed with cervical cancer In 2013
4,217 women in the United States died from cervical cancer In 2013
Cervical cancer was once one of the most common causes of cancer death for American women. But over the last 40 years, the cervical cancer death rate has gone down by more than 50%. The main reason for this change was the increased use of the Screening test. The screening procedure can find changes in the cervix before cancer develops. It can also find cervical cancer early, in its most curable stage.
Cervical cancer tends to occur in midlife. Most cases are found in women younger than 50. Many older women do not realize that the risk of developing cervical cancer is still present as they age. More than 15% of cases of cervical cancer are found in women over 65. However these cancers rarely occur in women who have been getting regular tests to screen for cervical cancer before they were 65.
The HPV 16/18 Antigen Rapid Test Device is a rapid visual immunoassay for the qualitative presumptive detection of HPV 16/18 E6&E7 oncoproteins in female cervical swab specimens. This kit is intended to be used as an aid in the diagnosis of Cervical Pre-cancer and Cancer.
The HPV 16/18 Antigen Rapid Test Device has been designed to detect HPV 16/18 E6&E7 Oncoproteins through visual interpretation of color development in the internal strip. The membrane was immobilized with monoclonal anti-HPV 16/18 E6&E7 antibodies on the test region. During the test, the specimen is allowed to react with colored monoclonal anti-HPV 16/18 E6&E7 antibodies colored particals conjugates, which were precoated on the sample pad of the test. The mixture then moves on the membrane by capillary action, and interact with reagents on the membrane. If there were enough HPV 16/18 E6&E7 oncoproteins in specimens, a colored band will form at the test region of the membrane. Presence of this colored band indicates a positive result, while its absence indicates a negative result. Appearance of a colored band at the control region serves as a procedural control. This indicates that proper volume of specimen has been added and membrane wicking has occurred.
* Before specimen collection, remove excess mucus from the endocervical area with a separate swab or cotton ball and discard. Insert the swab into the cervix until only the bottommost fibers are exposed. Firmly rotate the swab for 15-20 seconds in one direction. Pull the swab out carefully!.
* Put the swab to the extraction tube, if the test may be run immediately.
1. Prepare swab specimens:
•Place a clean extraction tube in the workstation. Add 8 drops of Extraction Buffer A to the extraction tube.
• Immerse the patient swab into the extraction tube and wait 2 minutes. While waiting, use a circular motion to roll the swab against the side of the extraction tube so that the liquid is expressed from the swab and can reabsorb.
• At the end of the extraction time, add 8 drops of Extraction Buffer B to the tube and extract for another 1 minute in the same way. Then squeeze the swab firmly against the tube to expel as much liquid as possible from the swab. Discard the swab following guidelines for handling infectious agents.
• The extracted specimen can remain at room temperature for 60 minutes without affecting the test result.
2. Remove the test from its sealed pouch, and place it on a clean, level surface. Label the device with patient or control identification. To obtain a best result, the assay should be performed within one hour.
3. Add 3 drops (approximately 100 µl) of extracted sample from the Extraction Tube to the sample well on the test cassette. As the test begins to work, you will see color move across the membrane.
4. Wait for the colored band(s) to appear. The result should be read at 15 minutes. Do not interpret the result after 20 minutes.