Torch panel 5in1
The conception of the TORCH infections was to group five infections, including Toxoplasmosis(TOX), Rubella Virus (RV), Cytomegalovirus(CMV), Herpes simplex virus(HSV) Infections acquired in utero or during the birth process are a significant cause of fetal and neonatal mortality and an important to early and later childhood morbidity. Thus, routine screening of pregnant women at the first prenatal visit for TORCH titers is common place in many parts of the world.
The vast majority of women infected during pregnancy have no symptoms. The number of women presenting with signs and symptoms of Toxoplasma gondii infection are less than 10%. Very low numbers of pregnant women have signs and symptoms of CMV mononucleosis. Only 50% of women infected with Rubella present with rash. The genital lesions associated with HSV may go unrecognized.
Toxoplasmosis (TOXO) is caused by Toxoplasma gondii , a parasite that can be acquired by the mother from handling cat feces, drinking unpasteurized milk, or eating contaminated meat. The infection is carried to the infant through the mother's placenta and can cause impairment of the infant's eyes (opthalmic impairment) and central nervous system (neurological dysfunction). The organism can invade brain or muscle tissue and form cysts. Infection acquired by the mother later in pregnancy usually decreases the likelihood of infection in the infant at birth although eye problems may occur in adolescence . Toxoplasmosis early in pregnancy is more likely to cause miscarriage or serious birth defects. The incidence of toxoplasmosis in newborns is one in 1,000 live births.
Rubella (RV) is a virus that has a seasonal pattern, with epidemics most likely in the spring. Between 0.1 to 2 percent of newborns are infected with rubella. The rate of fetal infection varies according to the timing of the mother's infection during pregnancy. Birth defects, however, are most likely (85%) in infants infected during the first eight weeks of pregnancy. Infants born with rubella may already show signs of heart disease, retarded growth, hearing loss, blood disorders, vision problems, or pneumonia . They may also develop problems later in childhood, including autism , hearing loss, brain syndromes, immune system disorders, or thyroid disease.
Cytomegalovirus belongs to the herpesvirus group of infections. It can be transmitted through body secretions, as well as by sexual contact; some newborns acquire CMV through the mother's breast milk. In adults, it produces symptoms resembling those of mononucleosis. About 1 to 2.2 percent of newborns in the United States are infected with CMV. Of this group, 10 percent have measurable symptoms. The mortality rate for these symptomatic newborns is 20 to 30 percent. Surviving infants with CMV may suffer from hearing problems (15%) or mental retardation (30%). Newborns who acquire CMV during the birth process or shortly after birth may develop pneumonia, hepatitis, or various blood disorders.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV1 + HSV2)
Herpesvirus infections are among the most common viral infections in humans. They are spread by oral or genital contact. It is estimated that between one in 1,000 and one in 5,000 infants are born with HSV infections. About 80 percent of these infections are acquired during the birth process itself; the virus enters the infant through its eyes, skin, mouth, and upper respiratory tract. Of infants born with HSV infection, about 20 percent have localized infections of the eyes, mouth, or skin. About 50 percent of infected infants will develop the disease throughout the body (disseminated) within nine to 11 days after birth. Disseminated herpes infections attack the liver and adrenal glands, as well as other body organs. Without treatment, the mortality rate is 80 percent. Even with antiviral medication, the mortality rate is still 15 to 20 percent, with 40 to 55 percent of the survivors having long-term damage to the central nervous system. In order to begin early, effective treatment, it is critical for pediatricians to diagnose HSV infection in newborns as soon as possible.
These 5infections can cause serious problems during pregnancy, so it's important to find them early in pregnancy so that they can be treated, if treatment is possible. Women often get the TORCH screening test at their first prenatal visit.
When is it requested for TORCH?
1. The test is ordered if a pregnant woman is suspected of having any of the TORCH infections.
2. The test may be ordered on the newborn if the infant shows any signs suggestive of these infections, such as exceptionally small size relative to the gestational age, deafness, mental retardation, seizures, heart defects, cataracts, enlarged liver or spleen, low platelet level, or jaundice.
1) Bring the pouch to room temperature before opening it. Remove the test device from the sealed pouch and use it as soon as possible.Place the test device on a clean and level surface.
2) Hold the dropper vertically and transfer 3 drop of whole blood to the specimen well(S) of the test device, and start the timer.
3) Wait for the colored line(s) to appear. Read results after 30 minutes.