Symptoms of dengue
Dengue fever virus (serotypes 1 – 4) belongs to the group flavivirus, and is transmitted in nature by day-biting Aceder mosquitos.
Primary Dengue infection, also known as Dengue Fever, is the most common type of dengue illness. It is associated with mild to high fever, headache, muscle pain and skin rash.
Secondary infection is known as Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) or Dengue Shock Syndrome, and often results in high fever and in many cases, with hemorrhagic events and circulatory failure.
The fatality rate in patients with Dengue Shock Syndrome can be as high as 44%. Dengue presents typically as a fever of sudden onset with headache, retrobullar pain, pain in the back and limbs (break-bone fever), lymphaderopathy and maculopaplar rash. Patients diagnosed with dengue in endemic areas generally have secondary infection, whereas patients in non-endemic areas are usually diagnosed with primary infection. Specific antibody responses to Dengue virus enable serodiagnosis and differentiation between primary and secondary dengue infections.
TEST PRINCIPLE of Dengue NS1 /IgG/IgM test
Dengue NS1 /IgG/IgM Combo Test is a simple, visual qualitative test that detects dengue virus antibodies IgG/IgM and dengue virus NS1 antigen in human blood. The test is based on immunochromatography and can give a result within 15 minutes.
Dengue NS1 (nonstructural protein I) is a highly conserved glycoprotein. NS1 antigen was found circulating in samples of infected patient from the first day up to 9 days after the onset of the fever. After the anti-NS1 antibody elevate in human body, the detectable NS1 antigens decline quickly. While detectable NS1 antigens declining, the elevated antibodies can be detected for longer time. Usually IgM does not become detectable until 3 to 10 days after the onset of illness in cases of primary dengue infection and until 2 to 3 days after onset of illness in secondary infections. In primary infections, IgG appear the 14th day and may persist for many years. Secondary infections generate an anamnestic IgG antibody response that is characterized by a rapid rise in IgG antibodies detectable at 4-5 days after the onset of the illness.(see graph)
The detection of both NS1 antigen and anti-Dengue antibodies provides the tool for the diagnosis of dengue infection from the early infection to the stage after the onset of the illness. It can enhance the accuracy of the diagnosis of dengue infection.
The following table summarizes results that may be seen with testing:
NS1 Result Positive = Current infection
NS1 antigen test is a quite specific test for early dengue and it is positive on day 1 before the antibody igm/igg tests become positive.
IgM Result = Positive = Current infection
IgG Result = Positive = Past infection
symptoms of malaria
Symptoms of malaria may include: Fever, Chills, Headache, Sweats, Fatigue, Nausea and Vomiting.
Symptoms may also appear in cycles. The time between episodes of fever and other symptoms varies with the specific parasite you are infected with. Episodes of symptoms may occur:
Every 48 hours if you are infected with P. vivax
P. falciparum does not usually cause a regular, cyclic fever.
The cyclic pattern of malaria symptoms is due to the life cycle of malaria parasites as they develop, reproduce, and are released from the red blood cells and liver cells in the human body. This cycle of symptoms is also one of the major signs that you are infected with malaria
Malaria is a serious, sometimes fatal, parasitic disease characterized by high fevers, shaking chills and flu-like illness, and is caused by a parasite that is transmitted from one human to another by the bite of infected Aropheres mosquitoes. The disease now occurs in more than 90 countries worldwide, and it is estimated that there are over 500 milllion clinical cases and 2.7 million malaria-cased deaths per year, 75% of them are African children. The infection with P. Falciparum if not promoptly treated, may to be fatal.
Intended Use of Malaria Pf Pv Antigen Test
Malaria Rapid Test Kit assists in the diagnosis of malaria by detecting evidence of malria parasites in human blood. It is used for detecting specific antigens produced by malaria parasites that are present in the body of infected or recently infected individuals.
"Pf" stands for Plasmodium falciparum and "Pv" stands for Plasmodium vivax. These are two different species of the parasite that causes malaria in humans. Pf causes the most acute, severe form of the disease, which can have a cerebral manifestation ("cerebral malaria") and causes the most deaths worldwide. Pv is still a serious disease, but usually less severe. If diagnosed early, both forms are easily treated and completely curable.
Test Procedure for both tests
1. Read the instruction manual.
2. Remove the test device from the sealed pouch and use it as soon as possible.
3. Place the test device on a clean and level surface.
4. Hold the dropper vertically and transfer 1 drop of specimen (about 25ul) to the specimen well(S) of the test device, then add 2 drops of buffer (about 100ul).
5. Read the test results in 10-20 minutes. Do not interpret results after 15 minutes.