Hepatitis E is generally mild in its effect unless you have pre-existing liver disease or are pregnant. (If you have a pre-existing liver condition or you are pregnant, hepatitis E can cause you to be very ill, often resulting in hospital admission)
If you become ill with hepatitis E, it is likely that you will develop a brief illness; most people will recover within a month. However, some patients with a suppressed immune system may fail to clear the virus and develop a persisting (chronic) infection. Such patients can develop cirrhosis of the liver.
In some people, hepatitis E can also affect the nervous system, and this can result in severe pain in the arms and legs. In some cases symptoms can clear completely within three to six months, but for other people there may be longer-lasting symptoms
Among pregnant women there is a risk of the virus causing a severe and rapidly occurring form of hepatitis that can lead to liver failure. This is called fulminant hepatitis and can cause premature delivery and infant mortality in the third trimester. Up to 25% of infected pregnant women can develop liver failure resulting in loss of life to both mother and baby.
How is the Hepatitis E virus spread?
Hepatitis E virus is usually spread by the fecal-oral route. (Unlike hepatitis A person-to-person transmission and blood-borne like hepatitis B & hepatitis C) The most common source of HEV infection is fecally contaminated drinking water. In developing countries, HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are spread by fecally contaminated drinking water.
In developed countries sporadic cases of HEV genotype 3 have occurred following consumption of uncooked/undercooked pork or deer meat. Consumption of shellfish was a risk factor in a recently described outbreak in a cruise ship. HEV genotype 4, been associated with foodborne transmission. HEV RNA (genotypes 3 and 4) had been extracted from pork, boar, and deer meat. Foodborne infection, could occur from consumption of uncooked/undercooked meat or organs from infected animals.
What are the symptoms?
After you've been exposed to the virus, it can take from 2 to 7 weeks before you see any signs of it. Symptoms usually last for about 2 months. Common symptoms are: Feeling very tired, Losing weight, Nausea and loss of appetite, Pain on the right side of the belly, under the rib cage (where your liver is), Yellow skin (jaundice), dark urine, and clay-colored stool, Sore muscles, Fever.
Who is most likely to have symptomatic HEV infection?
Symptomatic Hepatitis E in developing countries commonly occurs among older adolescents and young adults. Pregnant women are more likely to experience severe illness including fulminant hepatitis and death.
In developed countries, sporadic cases due to HEV genotype 3 mainly affect older men. Acute and chronic HEV infection occur in solid organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressant therapy.
How serious is Hepatitis E?
Most people with Hepatitis E recover completely. During HEV outbreaks, the overall case-fatality rate is about 1%. However, for pregnant women, Hepatitis E can be a serious illness with mortality reaching 10%–30% in their third trimester of pregnancy.
Hepatitis E could also be serious among persons with pre-existing chronic liver disease resulting in decompensated liver disease and death. Similarly high mortality occurs solid organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy.
Hepatitis E is caused by the Hepatitis E Virus (HEV), the main transmission through the digestive tract, and other similar clinical manifestations of acute hepatitis, case fatality rate is higher. This qualitative test kits are to test samples of the Hepatitis E Virus IgM antibody and is used in the clinical auxiliary diagnosis of Hepatitis E infection.
HEV test employs chromatographic lateral flow device in a cassette format.Colloidal gold conjugated recombinant antigens (Au-Ag) corresponding to HEV antigens are dry-immobilized at the end of nitrocellulose membrane strip. Anti-human IgM (anti-? chain) are bond at the Test Zone (T) and goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies are bond at the Control Zone (C). When the sample is added, it migrates by capillary diffusion rehydrating the gold conjugate. If present in sample, HEV IgM antibodies will bind with the gold conjugated antigens forming particles. These particles will continue to migrate along the strip until the Test Zone (T) where they are captured by anti-human IgM (anti-? chain) generating a visible red line. If there are no HEV IgM antibodies in sample, no red line is formed in the Test Zone (T). The gold conjugate will continue to migrate alone until it is captured in the Control Zone(C) by the goat anti-mouse IgM antibodies aggregating in a red line, which indicates the validity of the test.
1. Open the sealed foil pouch, take out the test cassette and put flat on the horizontal table
2. Drop one drop(10?l) specimen into the hole S and then drop two drops of specimen buffer(100?l) into the hole D and observe the result within 15~20 minutes. The results are invalid if observed beyond 20minutes